query($sql); $row = $d->fetch_array(); return $row; } function remove_product($pid,$size,$mau){ $pid=intval($pid); $max=count($_SESSION['cart']); for($i=0;$i<$max;$i++){ if($pid==$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['productid'] && $size==$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['size'] && $mau==$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['mau']){ unset($_SESSION['cart'][$i]); break; } } $_SESSION['cart']=array_values($_SESSION['cart']); if(count($_SESSION['cart'])==0) { $redirect=true; } else { $redirect=false; } } function get_order_total(){ global $d; $max=count($_SESSION['cart']); $sum=0; for($i=0;$i<$max;$i++){ $pid=$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['productid']; $q=$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['qty']; $price=get_product($pid); $sum+=$price['gia']*$q; } return $sum; } function get_total(){ $max=count($_SESSION['cart']); $sum=0; for($i=0;$i<$max;$i++){ $q=$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['qty']; $sum+=$q; } return $sum; } function addtocart($pid,$q,$size,$mau){ if($pid<1 or $q<1) return; if(is_array($_SESSION['cart'])){ $ck=product_exists($pid,$size,$mau); if($ck==-1) { ## Sản phẩm chưa có => thêm vào giỏ hàng $max=count($_SESSION['cart']); $_SESSION['cart'][$max]['productid']=$pid; $_SESSION['cart'][$max]['qty']=$q; $_SESSION['cart'][$max]['size']=$size; $_SESSION['cart'][$max]['mau']=$mau; } else { ## Sản phẩm đã có => cộng dồn số lượng $_SESSION['cart'][$ck]['qty']=$q+$_SESSION['cart'][$ck]['qty']; } } else{ $_SESSION['cart']=array(); $_SESSION['cart'][0]['productid']=$pid; $_SESSION['cart'][0]['qty']=$q; $_SESSION['cart'][0]['size']=$size; $_SESSION['cart'][0]['mau']=$mau; } } function product_exists($pid,$size,$mau){ $pid=intval($pid); $max=count($_SESSION['cart']); $flag=-1; for($i=0;$i<$max;$i++){ if($pid==$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['productid'] && $size==$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['size'] && $mau==$_SESSION['cart'][$i]['mau']){ $flag=$i; break; } } return $flag; } ?> History & Development

History & Development

History & Development

History & Development

History & Development

History & Development
History & Development

History & Development


Candlemaker William Procter and soapmaker James Gamble, both born in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, emigrated from England and Ireland, respectively. They settled in Cincinnati initially and met when they married sisters, Olivia and Elizabeth Norris.[6] Alexander Norris, their father-in-law, called a meeting in which he persuaded his new sons-in-law to become business partners. On October 31, 1837, as a result of the suggestion, Procter & Gamble was created.

In 1858–1859, sales reached $1 million. By that point, about 80 employees worked for Procter & Gamble. During the American Civil War, the company won contracts to supply the Union Army with soap and candles. In addition to the increased profits experienced during the war, the military contracts introduced soldiers from all over the country to Procter & Gamble's products.

In the 1880s, Procter & Gamble began to market a new product, an inexpensive soap that floats in water. The company called the soap Ivory. William Arnett Procter, William Procter's grandson, began a profit-sharing program for the company's workforce in 1887. By giving the workers a stake in the company, he correctly assumed that they would be less likely to go on strike.

The company began to build factories in other locations in the United States because the demand for products had outgrown the capacity of the Cincinnati facilities. The company's leaders began to diversify its products, as well, and in 1911, began producing Crisco, a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats. As radio became more popular in the 1920s and 1930s, the company sponsored a number of radio programs. As a result, these shows often became commonly known as "soap operas".

Further developments

Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and significantly increased profits. These acquisitions included Folgers Coffee, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals (the makers of Pepto-Bismol), Richardson-Vicks, Noxell (Noxzema), Shulton's Old SpiceMax Factor, the Iams Company, and Pantene, among others. In 1994, the company made headlines for big losses resulting from levered positions in interest rate derivatives, and subsequently sued Bankers Trust for fraud; this placed their management in the unusual position of testifying in court that they had entered into transactions that they were not capable of understanding. In 1996, P&G again made headlines when the Food and Drug Administration approved a new product developed by the company, Olestra. Also known by its brand name 'Olean', Olestra is a lower-calorie substitute for fat in cooking potato chips and other snacks.

In January 2005, P&G announced the acquisition [9] of Gillette, forming the largest consumer goods company and placing Unilever into second place. This added brands such as Gillette razors, DuracellBraun, and Oral-B to their stable. The acquisition was approved by the European Union and the Federal Trade Commission, with conditions to a spinoff of certain overlapping brands. P&G agreed to sell its SpinBrush battery-operated electric toothbrush business to Church & Dwight,[10] and Gillette's Rembrandt toothpaste line toJohnson & Johnson.[11] The deodorant brands Right Guard, Soft and Dri, and Dry Idea were sold to Dial Corporation.[12] The companies officially merged on October 1, 2005.Liquid Paper and Gillette's stationery division, Paper Mate, were sold to Newell Rubbermaid. In 2008, P&G branched into the record business with its sponsorship of Tag Records, as an endorsement for TAG Body Spray.[13]

P&G's dominance in many categories of consumer products makes its brand management decisions worthy of study.[14] For example, P&G's corporate strategists must account for the likelihood of one of their products cannibalizing the sales of another.[15]

On August 25, 2009, the Ireland-based pharmaceutical company Warner Chilcott announced they had bought P&G's prescription-drug business for $3.1 billion.[16]

P&G exited the food business in 2012 when it sold its Pringles snack food business to Kellogg's for $2.75 billion after the $2.35 billion deal with former suitor Diamond Foods fell short.[17] The company had previously sold Jif peanut butter, Crisco shortening and oils, and Folgers coffee in separate transactions to Smucker's.

In April 2014, the company sold its Iams pet food business in all markets excluding Europe to Mars, Inc. for $2.9 billion.[18] It sold the European Iams business to Spectrum Brands in December 2014.[19]

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